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Frame of reference

One way in which to view customers, is by applying the A3 framework: Aptitude, Altitude, Attitude.


Aptitude refers to a customer’s behavioural disposition, or the extent to which they tend to display certain behaviour patterns. The purchasing behaviour of consumers, for example, may be influenced by current conditions of health, appearance, finances, social concerns, and many other factors. Employees may have well-developed skills in certain areas, such as numerical or verbal fluency, further aspects related to their behaviour patterns.


Altitude denotes the level at which customers behave. In a work context this may be job position, work experience, etc. The purchase behaviour of consumers may be influenced by current conditions of health, beauty, finances, or social concerns. Consumers are more likely to purchase certain products due to the life stage they’re in (i.e., no baby - no purchase of diapers - no matter how good the product may be).


Attitude refers to the motive and impetus for putting in one’s best work and purchase efforts. Motivation may be driven by a number of factors, such as personal styles, satisfaction, loyalty, hobbies and interests, beliefs, emotional intelligence, etc.

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